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Glossary

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CCR5 blocker (microbicide and ARV class)

A microbicide in the entry inhibitor class prevents the virus from attaching to the host cell (lymphocyte or macrophage) by blocking the ability of HIV to interact with the CCR5 receptors on the cell surface>

CCR5 receptor

Receptors on the surface of the host cells to which HIV attaches. CCR5 is the receptor on lymphocytes and macrophages and is thought to be more important in sexual transmission of HIV than CXCR4.

CD4 receptor

A protein on the outside of infection-fighting white blood cells that allows HIV to bind to and enter the cells.

cDNA

In the HIV life cycle, copy DNA, or complementary DNA, is made after the virus has entered the cell and is beginning the process of replicating itself to take over the healthy cell. cDNA is formed as a copy of the HIV’s genetic material, which is single-stranded ribonucleic acid, or RNA.

Civil Society Organization

Civil society organizations, or CSOs, refer to a wide range of citizens’ associations that provide benefits, services or political influence to specific groups within society. CSOs include business forums, faith-based associations, labor unions, local community groups, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and think tanks.

class

A genre or grouping of drug products that all work in a similar way. Often we refer to a class of microbicide, which indicates the way that it prevents HIV infection.

clinical trial

Research studies that include human volunteers. Clinical trials answer specific questions about the safety, efficacy and medical effects of a specific prevention, treatment or intervention. Carefully conducted clinical trials are required to test and seek licensure for effective disease treatments and preventions. There are typically three phases of clinical trials before the filing with regulatory authorities, sometimes followed by ongoing, post-approval trials. (See also Phase I, Phase II, Phase III, and Phase IV)

Clinical Trial Material Facility

IPM’s facility responsible for producing the products used in clinical trials, including the active drug and the placebo. This refers to facilities owned by IPM or to other locations/research centers owned and operated by another manufacturer.

cluster of differentiation

The abbreviation for “cluster of differentiation,” referring to a set of cell-surface molecules that are used to identify the types and stages of maturity of immune cells, for example, CD4+ T cells.

coitally dependent

An intervention that must be applied or used near the time of sexual intercourse.

CQA

Critical Quality Attribute

Critical Quality Attribute

A property of a drug product that should be within an appropriate limit, range, or distribution to ensure the desired quality of a product.

cross resistance

Occurs when resistance to one drug results in resistance to similar drugs.

CSO

civil society organization

CTM

Clinical Trial Manufacturing Facility

CXCR4 receptor

Receptors on the surface of the host cells to which HIV attaches. CCR5 is the receptor on lymphocytes and macrophages and is thought to be more important in sexual transmission of HIV than CXCR4.